Corresponding Author

Shalaby, Moussa

Subject Area

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Article Type



One of the most important issues and challenges nowadays in Egypt is how to provide enough water for current and future needs. The great population growth, agricultural consumption, climate change, limited freshwater resources, and welfare lifestyle require more water. All these factors push the Egyptian policy to search for additional water resources. One of the considerable water resources is the treated wastewater that has been used in irrigation under some restrictions. However, the use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation may have negative health effects if its properties were deviated from the allowable standards. This study considers Egyptian standards, regulations, and limitations for using treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation, in comparison to other nations around the world. The study discusses the related treated wastewater quality parameters for irrigation, including physio-chemical controls and agronomic controls. The results revealed that the Egyptian code (ECP 501/2015) is highly compatible with the regulations of other countries, but there are some differences. These differences are allowable because (ECP 501/2015) prohibited the use of treated wastewater in irrigating raw vegetable crops. Finally, the acceptable chemical, physical, and agronomic properties of treated wastewater for agricultural applications in Egypt have to be more studied to make the best use of treated wastewater.


Treated wastewater reuse; Egyptian standards; Agriculture Irrigation