Corresponding Author

Atef Makhloof

Subject Area

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Article Type

Original Study


This study uses the window-method for merging the gravity field wavelengths inside the remove-restore technique (RRT) to get the gravimetric geoid for Egypt using Helmert's models of condensation. In this case, the window approach (Abd-Elmotaal and Kühtreiber, 2003) was utilized to avert taking the topographic-condensation masses into account twice inside the data frame. A gravimetric geoid for Egypt has been calculated utilizing Helmert's first and second condensations approach and Airy- Heiskanen model. Within the context of the geoid computation, a thorough comparison between the various Helmert approaches and Airy-Heiskanen has been made. The comparison uses the estimated geoid indicators before and after scaling to the GPS/leveling geoid as well as the residual gravity anomalies that remain after the removal step. The outcomes demonstrated that the window techniques reduced gravity anomalies are the smooth, most objective, and have the narrowest range for all used gravity reduction techniques. Additionally, the gravity anomalies that were reduced as a result of the Helmert's first condensation method are nearly identical to those that were reduced using the Airy-Heiskanen technique. The results of the geoid computed via Helmert's first condensation and the Airy-Heiskanen technique are identical. Furthermore, although the indirect effect is minimal in case of Helmert 2nd condensation method, it is essential for determining the 1 cm geoid precision. Finally, geoid undulations computed from Helmert 2nd condensation method are better than those calculated from the other two methods.


Gravimetric geoid for Egypt- gravity anomaly data - window technique - Helmert 1st and 2nd method of condensation

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.