Corresponding Author

Ahmed M. Elkhawaga

Subject Area

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Article Type

Original Study


This paper presents a new beamforming technique based on the hybrid combination of the convolution algorithm (CA) and the genetic algorithm (GA) for reducing side lobe level (SLL) and array thinning of concentric circular antenna arrays (CCAA), which is denoted as C/GA technique. The CA determines the excitations of the elements, while the GA optimizes the radii of the circular arrays to adjust the half-power beamwidth (HPBW). For CCAA consisting of uniform feeding circular arrays, we assume that there are excitation coefficients that are distributed symmetrically around the array center and arranged in a vector. The excitation vector is convolved by itself to generate a vector of synthesized excitations. To maintain the array size, only odd, synthesized excitations or even synthesized excitations are selected to feed the synthesized arrays. Both excitations yield a doubling-down decrease in the SLL but with wider HPBWs than the original pattern. Thereby, the GA optimizes the radii of the circular arrays to control the synthesized HPBWs. The synthesized array size is minimized by carrying out array thinning by turning off the outer circular arrays of the synthesized CCAA in conjunction with optimization of the radii of the ON arrays.


Antenna array synthesis, Array thinning, Beamforming, Concentric circular antenna array (CCAA), Convolution algorithm (CA), Genetic algorithm (GA), Side lobe level (SLL), and Computer simulation technology (CST).

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.